斋戒节食,瘦身减肥? [Intermittent fasting during Ramadan & weight management]

Monday, June 11, 2018




六月。
倒数六天,穆斯林斋戒月即将结束。马路上大部分时间都堵车,这个一点都不稀奇。
那你们有没有好奇,在斋戒月期间,有部分的穆斯林通过节食成功廋了下来,那这个“节食饮食方式”,真的能够减肥吗?斋戒的意义到底是什么?




在伊斯兰教的宗教礼仪中,斋戒,真正用意不是禁食或节食,而是透过反省,学习超越身心诱惑,回到纯净状态。原意是作赎罪,克制私欲,经历饥饿而生发对贫穷者赒济的善心。
每年一个月的斋戒,自日出至日落,整个白天禁吃禁饮禁欲。即使吃封斋饭(Sahur)和开斋饭(Iftar)时,也要控制食量,不可饱食饱饮,以免伤及脾胃。节食的种类有很多,而斋戒月的节食法是一种具有规律性的、系统的节食方法,约为12小时。

【为什么这样的方式能让人廋下来?】
节食的关键是限制热量(Calories Restriction)摄入。
除此之外,也有研究分析,间歇禁食方法可以利用昼夜节律或生理节奏学(circadian biology)来保持健康的新陈代谢。身体是会通过生理时钟来调节,以确保生理过程在最佳时间进行的。
这就是为什么我们常被提醒要在该工作的时候工作,该休息的时候休息。重要的是,破坏昼夜节律与肥胖,糖尿病,心血管疾病和癌症(特别是乳腺癌)风险增加有关。

当然,也有人廋不下来。

原因是:
一,在晚饭时大吃大喝以“补偿”卡路里,并吃“沉重“的宵夜。
二,这也和节食的时间有关吧。
像我之前提到的节律,胃肠道的许多功能也都根据昼夜节律(circadian rhythm)或睡眠觉醒节律(sleep-wake rhythm)。胃排空的速度和血流量在白天比在夜间更快,而且葡萄糖的代谢反应在晚上比在早上更慢。 所以说,把“沉重”的一餐都放在晚上,长期干扰昼夜节律可能影响肠胃功能,并影响新陈代谢。




=====================================


有人说这样的禁食方式对身体不好,又有人说一年中有一些日子清清肠胃总有好处。
事实上,伊斯兰的节食方式并非是过分的、极端的自我饥饿。
在伊斯兰教的宗教礼仪中,提倡的是合理节食,即注意食量,不可过多,最多应按照“吃三分之一,喝三分之一,另外三分之一用来呼吸。”即使是吃封斋饭(Sahur)和开斋饭(Iftar)时也要控制食量,不可饱食饱饮。

研究显示,除了帮助减重,合理节食也可能对抵御疾病和改善健康状况有长远效果,如肥胖导致的综合症,糖尿病,癌症。

关于这一块,因人而异。

所以,在这里分享一些研究的结果,有效与否,和你的毅力,睡眠,饮食,及运动习惯有关。
️ 绝大部分的间歇性节食方法都能帮助减轻体重!
️ 停止实行节食方法并恢复正常饮食习惯后,跟进的研究显示,体重在两个星期后平均上升大约0.72公斤。
️ 目前并没有足够的证据表明间歇性节食方法对身体上或心理上有害。
 ️间歇性节食方法对人类体重或身体的新陈代谢带来好处,但研究数据有限。

这说明了什么?说明了,节食一个月后恢复节食前的饮食习惯的话,结果是费时费心费力。
📣任何一种的瘦身方法,都需要你去“kick-start”一个健康的饮食和生活习惯,之后保持这样的健康生活方式,才是关键。
现在,大家都追求瘦美,很多人为了拥有苗条的身材进行极端的禁食的方法,这是错误的,会对身体造成伤害。

小提醒:若要节食,应通过正确的方式,合理节食。







=====================================




Extra information:
Types of intermittent fasting regimens

Complete Alternate Day Fasting
These regimens involve alternating fasting days (no energy-containing foods or beverages consumed) with eating days (foods and beverages consumed ad-libitum).
Modified Fasting Regimens
Modified regimens allow for the consumption of 20–25% of energy needs on scheduled fasting days. This regimen is the basis for the popular 5:2 diet, which involves severe energy restriction for 2 non-consecutive days a week and ad libitum eating the other 5 days.
Time-Restricted Feeding
These protocols allow individuals to consume ad libitum energy intake within specific windows, which induces fasting periods on a routine basis. Studies of <3 meals per day are indirect examinations of a prolonged daily or nightly fasting periods.
Religious Fasting
A wide variety of fasting regimens are undertaken for religious or spiritual purposes.
Ramadan Fasting
A fast from dawn to sunset during the holy months of Ramadan. The most common dietary practice is to consume one large meal after sunset and one lighter meal before dawn. Therefore the feast and fast periods of Ramadan are approximately 12 hours in length.
Other Religious Fasts
Latter Day Saints followers routinely abstain from food and drink for extended periods of time. Some Seventh-day Adventists consume their last of 2 daily meals in the afternoon, resulting in an extended nighttime fasting interval that may be biologically important.

Conclusion:
  • Studies in rodents and other nocturnal mammals support the hypothesis that intermittent fasting and restricting the availability of chow to the normal nighttime feeding cycle improves metabolic profiles and reduces the risk of obesity, obesity-related conditions such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cancer.
  • In healthy, normal weight, overweight, or obese adults, there is little evidence that intermittent fasting regimens are harmful physically or mentally (i.e., in terms of mood).
  • It appears that almost any intermittent fasting regimen can result in some weight loss.
  • There are limited data from human studies to support the robust rodent data regarding the positive impacts of time-restricted feeding (i.e., eating patterns aligned with normal circadian rhythms) on weight or metabolic health.
  • There are considerable observational data on various forms of religious fasting, most of which suggests that these regimes result in transitory weight loss with mixed impacts on other biomarkers.
  • Data are lacking regarding the impacts of intermittent fasting on other health behaviors such as diet, sleep, and physical activity.
  • There are little or no published data linking intermittent fasting regimens with clinical outcomes such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, or other chronic diseases such as Alzheimer’s.



Current recommendations for weight loss frequently include advice to eat regular meals to avoid becoming hungry. Some guidelines also advise the consumption of regular snacks throughout the day. However, it is not clear that periods of fasting (i.e., hunger) necessarily lead to periods of over-eating. This overview suggests that intermittent fasting regimens may be a promising approach to lose weight and improve metabolic health for people who can tolerate intervals of not eating, or eating very little, for certain hours of the day or days of the week. If proven to be efficacious, these eating regimens may offer promising nonpharmacologic approaches to improving health at the population level with multiple public health benefits.



Patterson, Ruth E., et al. "Intermittent fasting and human metabolic health." Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 115.8 (2015): 1203-1212.

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Monday, June 11, 2018

斋戒节食,瘦身减肥? [Intermittent fasting during Ramadan & weight management]




六月。
倒数六天,穆斯林斋戒月即将结束。马路上大部分时间都堵车,这个一点都不稀奇。
那你们有没有好奇,在斋戒月期间,有部分的穆斯林通过节食成功廋了下来,那这个“节食饮食方式”,真的能够减肥吗?斋戒的意义到底是什么?




在伊斯兰教的宗教礼仪中,斋戒,真正用意不是禁食或节食,而是透过反省,学习超越身心诱惑,回到纯净状态。原意是作赎罪,克制私欲,经历饥饿而生发对贫穷者赒济的善心。
每年一个月的斋戒,自日出至日落,整个白天禁吃禁饮禁欲。即使吃封斋饭(Sahur)和开斋饭(Iftar)时,也要控制食量,不可饱食饱饮,以免伤及脾胃。节食的种类有很多,而斋戒月的节食法是一种具有规律性的、系统的节食方法,约为12小时。

【为什么这样的方式能让人廋下来?】
节食的关键是限制热量(Calories Restriction)摄入。
除此之外,也有研究分析,间歇禁食方法可以利用昼夜节律或生理节奏学(circadian biology)来保持健康的新陈代谢。身体是会通过生理时钟来调节,以确保生理过程在最佳时间进行的。
这就是为什么我们常被提醒要在该工作的时候工作,该休息的时候休息。重要的是,破坏昼夜节律与肥胖,糖尿病,心血管疾病和癌症(特别是乳腺癌)风险增加有关。

当然,也有人廋不下来。

原因是:
一,在晚饭时大吃大喝以“补偿”卡路里,并吃“沉重“的宵夜。
二,这也和节食的时间有关吧。
像我之前提到的节律,胃肠道的许多功能也都根据昼夜节律(circadian rhythm)或睡眠觉醒节律(sleep-wake rhythm)。胃排空的速度和血流量在白天比在夜间更快,而且葡萄糖的代谢反应在晚上比在早上更慢。 所以说,把“沉重”的一餐都放在晚上,长期干扰昼夜节律可能影响肠胃功能,并影响新陈代谢。




=====================================


有人说这样的禁食方式对身体不好,又有人说一年中有一些日子清清肠胃总有好处。
事实上,伊斯兰的节食方式并非是过分的、极端的自我饥饿。
在伊斯兰教的宗教礼仪中,提倡的是合理节食,即注意食量,不可过多,最多应按照“吃三分之一,喝三分之一,另外三分之一用来呼吸。”即使是吃封斋饭(Sahur)和开斋饭(Iftar)时也要控制食量,不可饱食饱饮。

研究显示,除了帮助减重,合理节食也可能对抵御疾病和改善健康状况有长远效果,如肥胖导致的综合症,糖尿病,癌症。

关于这一块,因人而异。

所以,在这里分享一些研究的结果,有效与否,和你的毅力,睡眠,饮食,及运动习惯有关。
️ 绝大部分的间歇性节食方法都能帮助减轻体重!
️ 停止实行节食方法并恢复正常饮食习惯后,跟进的研究显示,体重在两个星期后平均上升大约0.72公斤。
️ 目前并没有足够的证据表明间歇性节食方法对身体上或心理上有害。
 ️间歇性节食方法对人类体重或身体的新陈代谢带来好处,但研究数据有限。

这说明了什么?说明了,节食一个月后恢复节食前的饮食习惯的话,结果是费时费心费力。
📣任何一种的瘦身方法,都需要你去“kick-start”一个健康的饮食和生活习惯,之后保持这样的健康生活方式,才是关键。
现在,大家都追求瘦美,很多人为了拥有苗条的身材进行极端的禁食的方法,这是错误的,会对身体造成伤害。

小提醒:若要节食,应通过正确的方式,合理节食。







=====================================




Extra information:
Types of intermittent fasting regimens

Complete Alternate Day Fasting
These regimens involve alternating fasting days (no energy-containing foods or beverages consumed) with eating days (foods and beverages consumed ad-libitum).
Modified Fasting Regimens
Modified regimens allow for the consumption of 20–25% of energy needs on scheduled fasting days. This regimen is the basis for the popular 5:2 diet, which involves severe energy restriction for 2 non-consecutive days a week and ad libitum eating the other 5 days.
Time-Restricted Feeding
These protocols allow individuals to consume ad libitum energy intake within specific windows, which induces fasting periods on a routine basis. Studies of <3 meals per day are indirect examinations of a prolonged daily or nightly fasting periods.
Religious Fasting
A wide variety of fasting regimens are undertaken for religious or spiritual purposes.
Ramadan Fasting
A fast from dawn to sunset during the holy months of Ramadan. The most common dietary practice is to consume one large meal after sunset and one lighter meal before dawn. Therefore the feast and fast periods of Ramadan are approximately 12 hours in length.
Other Religious Fasts
Latter Day Saints followers routinely abstain from food and drink for extended periods of time. Some Seventh-day Adventists consume their last of 2 daily meals in the afternoon, resulting in an extended nighttime fasting interval that may be biologically important.

Conclusion:
  • Studies in rodents and other nocturnal mammals support the hypothesis that intermittent fasting and restricting the availability of chow to the normal nighttime feeding cycle improves metabolic profiles and reduces the risk of obesity, obesity-related conditions such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and chronic diseases such as diabetes and cancer.
  • In healthy, normal weight, overweight, or obese adults, there is little evidence that intermittent fasting regimens are harmful physically or mentally (i.e., in terms of mood).
  • It appears that almost any intermittent fasting regimen can result in some weight loss.
  • There are limited data from human studies to support the robust rodent data regarding the positive impacts of time-restricted feeding (i.e., eating patterns aligned with normal circadian rhythms) on weight or metabolic health.
  • There are considerable observational data on various forms of religious fasting, most of which suggests that these regimes result in transitory weight loss with mixed impacts on other biomarkers.
  • Data are lacking regarding the impacts of intermittent fasting on other health behaviors such as diet, sleep, and physical activity.
  • There are little or no published data linking intermittent fasting regimens with clinical outcomes such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, or other chronic diseases such as Alzheimer’s.



Current recommendations for weight loss frequently include advice to eat regular meals to avoid becoming hungry. Some guidelines also advise the consumption of regular snacks throughout the day. However, it is not clear that periods of fasting (i.e., hunger) necessarily lead to periods of over-eating. This overview suggests that intermittent fasting regimens may be a promising approach to lose weight and improve metabolic health for people who can tolerate intervals of not eating, or eating very little, for certain hours of the day or days of the week. If proven to be efficacious, these eating regimens may offer promising nonpharmacologic approaches to improving health at the population level with multiple public health benefits.



Patterson, Ruth E., et al. "Intermittent fasting and human metabolic health." Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 115.8 (2015): 1203-1212.

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